Testicular Cancer: Introduction
Testicular cancer occurs at the testicles of the body. Testicles are present in the male reproductive organs and the treatment of this cancer may result in infertility among men. It has been observed that testicular cancer occurs more in developed countries than in developing countries.
Testicular Cancer: Signs and Symptoms
Testicular cancer have some very obvious signs and symptoms which are not that commonly seen in other types of cancer.
Some of the major signs and symptoms of testicular cancer are as follows :
- Lump or swelling in one of the testicles which may or may not be painful
- Sharp pain in the lower abdomen
- Heaviness feeling in the scrotum
- Breast enlargement either in one of the breasts or may be in both
- Lower back pain especially at the lymph node area
These were some of the very early symptoms but some of the advanced symptoms of testicular cancer are as follows :
- Shortness of breathe
- Coughing of blood
- Lymph in the neck area
Testicular Cancer : Risk Factors
There are several risk factors which are associated with testicular cancer. Some of the major risk factor have been listed below :
- Abnormal development of testicles
- Personal history of testicular cancer
- Family history of testicular cancer
- White complexioned
- Undescended testicle
Testicular Cancer : Diagnosis
There are several ways to diagnose testicular cancer. Some of which are listed as follows :
- Physical examination and history : a general physical examination where you check your body to see if there are any swellings or any areas where there is pain or some node formation. This is the preliminary examination.
- Serum Tumour Marker Test : A sample of blood is measured to check certain releases from different parts of the body. Certain specific chemicals are used in this case. Some of these chemicals are – Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) and Beta Human Chronic Gonadotropin.
- Inguinal Orchiectomy : here entire testicle is removed through some incision in your groin area. Later a tissue sample is checked from your testicle and viewed under the microscope for the presence of any cancerous cells.
These above tests are used to diagnose if you are suffering from testicle cancer or not. There are some more tests which are then conducted to find out the specific stage of testicular cancer. This will help ahead in the treatment of testicular cancer.
Following are some of the those stages which help in the second stage of diagnosis of testicular cancer :
- Chest X ray – Here X rays enters your body and then it gives a clear picture of the chest area and other areas near to your chest.
- CT Scan – This is the scan which is used to come out with detailed images of your body. This will give you a clear picture of what all areas the cancer has spread and what should be the treatment ahead.
- PET Scan – In this a very small amount of radioactive glucose in inserted into your vein and then the scanner moves all around our body to find out which parts of your body are utilizing the glucose. Cancerous cells are usually much brighter and they consume more glucose than the other normal healthy cells.
- Abdominal Lymph Node Dissection – In this lymph nodes are removed and the samples collected from the lymph nodes are checked under the microscope to see for the presence of cancerous cells.
- Serum tumor marker test – here a sample of blood is examined to see the substance release from other areas of the body.